Elucidating an uncommon disease inflammatory breast cancer tiffany hsu ethan ruan dating

Elucidating an uncommon disease inflammatory breast cancer

IBC is a form of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) that was first described by Lee and Tannenbaum in 1924 (2).The unique clinical and pathologic syndrome and discouraging outcome make IBC a very distinct form of breast carcinoma (reviewed in refs. IBC frequently displays high histologic grade, negativity of hormone receptors, neoangiogenenesis and tissue invasiveness, and an aggressive clinical behavior with high frequency of axillary lymph node involvement at diagnosis and, in ~35% of cases, distant metastasis (3).mi RNAs play important roles in breast cancer, but roles of mi RNA in inflammatory breast cancer are still scarely reported.In this study, first, we confirmed that mi R-181c expression was upregulated in inflammatory breast cancer tissues, compared with adjacent normal tissues and showed that it could promote proliferation in IBC cells.Evidence for the causal involvement of mi RNAs in breast cancer comes from many sources.For example, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer was initiated by mi R-10b (15); micro RNA mi R-21 overexpression in human breast cancer is associated with advanced clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and patient poor prognosis and PDCD4 is an important functional target of mi R-21 in breast cancer cells (16,17); mi R-31 inhibits breast cancer metastasis (18); downregulation of mi RNA-200c links breast cancer stem cells with normal stem cells (19); micro RNA-221/222 confers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer by targeting p27 (20).Micro RNAs (mi RNAs/mi Rs) are a class of non-coding RNAs able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, by binding to the 3′-untranslated region of target messenger RNAs (m RNAs) through partial sequence homology, and causing a block of translation and/or m RNA degradation (6–8).Aberrant mi RNA expression has been linked to diseases, including cancer and it has been found implicated in a multitude of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis (9–14).

Because of its relative scarcity and difficulty for obtaining diagnostic samples of sufficient size, the molecular basis of IBC still waits clarification (4).

micro RNAs (mi RNAs or mirs) are short non-coding RNAs that regulate the target m RNAs by binding mostly to the 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR), inducing either translational repression or the degradation of the target (6–8).

We screened target genes of mi R-181c by Target Scan which is a commonly used prediction algorithm.

Breast cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world (1).

A rare (~6% of all cases) but often lethal form of locally advanced breast cancer is inflammatory breast cancer (IBC).

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We found that mi R-181c could target 3′-UTR of PTEN m RNA.

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