After the war, 1,085 Jews were left in the city, 900 local inhabitants and the rest from the neighboring villages. An industrial city 52 miles southwest of Grodno, Bialystok (also known as Byelostok) prospered from its two major productscloth and tobacco.In the early part of the nineteenth century Bialystok had a Hebrew printing-office, from which the first book known to have been printed was issued in 1805 and the last in 1824.First accounts of Jewish settlement in Bialystok date from 1658 to 1661.
Bialystok had one large synagogue, four or five large batei midrash and about twice as many small minyanim.
It also had of the finest Jewish hospitals in the area, plus a home for the aged, two free loan institutions, a Talmud Torah with about 500 pupils in 1900, and many other benevolent societies.
(Excerpted from the 1900 article The Jewish Encyclopedia at On June 27, 1941, the Nazis occupied the city, which at that point had 50,000 Jews in it and 350,000 in the province.
Over the course of the next month, the Nazis burned down the synagogue and murdered 5,000 people.
On August 1, 1941, the remaining Jewish population was enclosed in a ghetto.
On February 12, 1943, the Nazis began to liquidate the ghetto.