Visualisation of Venus Express during the aerobraking manoeuvre is pictured'Aerobraking uses atmospheric drag to slow down a spacecraft, so we were able to use the accelerometer measurements to explore the density of Venus' atmosphere,' said Dr Ingo Müller-Wodarg of Imperial College London, UK, lead author of the study.'None of Venus Express' instruments were actually designed to make such in-situ atmosphere observations.We only realised in 2006, after launch, that we could use the Venus Express spacecraft as a whole to do more science.' This figure shows the density of Venus' atmosphere in the northern polar regions at altitudes of 81 to 188 miles (130 to 190km).The results showed the polar atmosphere is not as dense as expected.At 81 and 87 miles (130 and 140 km) in altitude, it is 22 per cent and 40 per cent less dense than predicted, respectively When Dr Müller-Wodarg and colleagues gathered their observations, Venus Express was orbiting at an altitude of between 81 and 87 miles (130 and 140 kilometres) near Venus' polar regions, in a portion of Venus' atmosphere that had never before been studied.'These lower densities could be at least partly due to Venus' polar vortices, which are strong wind systems sitting near the planet's poles.
''By studying how the atmospheric densities changed and were perturbed over time, we found two different types of wave: Atmospheric gravity waves and planetary waves,' said co-author Dr Sean Bruinsma at the Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), France.This frame shows a visualisation of raw data from the experiment, performed from 24 June to 11 July 2014, at altitudes of 81 to 88 miles (130-140 km) in the atmosphere of Venus.Packaging Group is a multi-functional custom contract packager/co-packer located in Michigan City, IN., 60 miles from Downtown Chicago.Our multiple contract packaging "Suites" enable us to provide an usually broad range of services, from FDA Re-packaging and Cosmetic Packaging to Industrial packaging.Our previous understanding of Venus' polar atmosphere was based on observations gathered by Nasa's Pioneer Venus probe in the late 1970s Before it plummeted down through the planet's atmosphere, the probe's measurements showed it to be rippling with atmospheric waves and, at an average temperature of -157°C (114K), is colder than anywhere on Earth. It spent eight years orbiting the planet, greatly exceeding the mission's planned duration of 500 days, before it ran out of fuel then began its descent into Venus' atmosphere, before the mission lost contact with Earth.
Artist's impression of Venus Express is pictured Using accelerometers on board, the spacecraft measured the deceleration it experienced as it pushed through the planet's upper atmosphere, something known as 'aerobraking'.